Up to three degrees of frost is expected in Moscow on Monday

Cloudy weather, snow and ice are forecast in the Russian capital on Monday, December 6, the official website of the Hydrometeorological Center of the Russian Federation reports.

During the day, the air temperature in Moscow will be from minus one to minus three degrees.

Atmospheric pressure is 751 millimeters of mercury. The wind is easterly with a speed of five to ten meters per second. 

Cloudy weather, snow and ice are also expected in Moscow on Tuesday night.The air temperature will be from minus three to minus five degrees.

The wind is south-easterly with a speed of six to 11 meters per second. In places, its gusts can reach 15 meters per second. Atmospheric pressure is 750 millimeters of mercury.

Earlier, a leading employee of the weather center Phobos Evgeny Tishkovets said that the winter weather in the capital will develop according to the scenario of a warm sandwich.

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In Primorye, an Amur tiger was caught attacking dogs

Experts caught a tiger in the north of Primorye, which attacked domestic dogs in the Pozharsky district of the region, reports TASS.

According to representatives of the Amur Tiger center, for almost two weeks the predator killed seven dogs on the territory of private residential buildings. At the same time, he behaved unconventionally, without fear of people, and went out to the village both in the dark and in the daytime.

The animal was caught by the hunting supervision group. The predator turned out to be a healthy male at the age of two or three years.

The tiger was released into the wild in the vicinity of the Tiger’s Call National Park, where he will be able to hunt ungulates. He was also put on a collar with a GPS transmitter to monitor his adaptation to a new place and to exclude repeated exits to populated areas.

To identify the tiger in the future, it was named Mountain.

The general director of the Amur Tiger Center, Sergey Aramilev, in turn, noted that this year there are few wild boars in the habitat of the Amur tiger, which are the main part of the predator’s diet. As a result, the tigers switched to roe deer, which moved closer to people during heavy snowfalls, and the predators followed them.

Earlier, participants of a criminal group that had been shooting Amur tigers and selling their parts abroad for several years were detained in Primorsky Krai.

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In the United States, the launch of the Atlas V rocket with a military communications satellite was postponed again

The launch of the Atlas V launch vehicle with a communications satellite of the United States Space Forces has been postponed to December 7, the website of the United Launch Alliance (ULA) American consortium reports.

It is noted that the decision is related to the need for additional checks.

The Atlas V rocket is to launch the STPSat-6 military satellite into orbit, on which infrared lasers are installed.Initially, the launch was scheduled for December 5. Later, it was postponed to Monday, December 6, due to a fuel leak in the ground storage.

ULA explained that the problems have been fixed, but specialists need time to make sure that the fuel sample is clean before starting operations to refuel the rocket.

Now the launch is scheduled for Tuesday, December 7. It is reported that it will be carried out from the spaceport at Cape Canaveral (Florida)at 04:04, US East Coast time (12:04 Moscow time).

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Dobrokras is in the hospital. In the Russian Federation, child and infant mortality is decreasing

Plot National projects

Thanks to the national Healthcare project, a whole range of measures is being implemented to reduce infant and child mortality, in particular, the renovation and modernization of children’s polyclinics and hospitals continues. In addition, during the entire implementation of the national project during pregnancy, childbirth and the postpartum period, more than 3.6 million women received medical care, including through birth certificates. Also, the qualifications of 26 thousand specialists in the field of perinatology, neonatology and pediatrics in simulation centers have been improved.

In 10 regions of the Russian Federation (Belgorod Region, Altai Territory, Perm Territory, Murmansk Region, Omsk Region, Sverdlovsk Region, Lipetsk Region, Stavropol Territory, Republic of Karelia, Smolensk Region) From December 2 to December 20, 2021, according to the national project “Healthcare”, the project “Dobrokras” starts in the departments of children’s hospitals to create a cozy and favorable atmosphere conducive to the speedy recovery of patients, walls will be painted.As part of the campaign, cultural volunteers will conduct master classes for young patients and their parents in medical institutions.

A new digital X-ray machine has been installed in the regional children’s hospital of the Samara region. A separate room was completely redone for the new X-ray diagnostic complex. To install heavy equipment in the office, all the necessary plastering, painting and finishing works were carried out. The ventilation, lighting and water supply systems have been replaced, and the radiation safety system for patients and staff has been strengthened. For children with disabilitiesa ramp is provided for health. Previously, all children underwent X-ray examination in the central building in one office. With the new X-ray, it became possible to separate patient flows. For children with signs of SARS and other infectious diseases, radiography will be carried out in a separate office of the infectious building. This will create more comfortable conditions for patients, significantly reduce the waiting time for an appointment for examination.

The children’s polyclinic of the Bayevskaya Central District Hospital in the Altai Territory has opened after major repairs. The updated children’s consultation has a separate entrance. More precisely, two entrances. The first is the main one, which ensures the isolation of the flow of children from adult visitors to the CRH polyclinic. It is equipped with a ramp. In addition, there is a room for children’s transport at the entrance. In the covered wheelchair parents will be able to put strollers and sleds. The second entrance is provided for the reception of patients with fever. It is marked with a sign “Filter box”. This makes it possible to separate the streams of sick and healthychildren’s.The clinic has spacious waiting areas with comfortable sofas, a children’s corner. While waiting for a doctor’s appointment, you can even watch cartoons. A separate baby feeding room is equipped. The corridors and hall of the polyclinic are decorated with bright panels depicting fairy-tale characters. In addition to pediatricians’ offices, ultrasound, ECG, ophthalmologist, and treatment rooms are equipped here. The polyclinic received modern furniture and equipment. An accessible environment for children with disabilities has been created: a call button for medical staff at the entrance, a ramp for wheelchair entry, a toilet for patients with limited mobility.

The consultative polyclinic of the Vologda Regional Children’s Hospital no. now operates in a completely renovated building. Today, the medical institution meets the standards of primary and inpatient medical care. There is an entrance group, including for patients with limited mobility, an open registry, a waiting hall, four doctor’s offices, including one room with a manipulation room for surgical care and ENT reception.The flows of healthy and sick patients are separated, the reception will be conducted by the main freelance specialists of the region.

A large-scale repair of a children’s polyclinic was carried out in the Sharyinsky district of the Kostroma region. The old entrance groups and the ceilings between the offices were dismantled in the premises. Window and door blocks, floors, water supply and sewerage pipes have been replaced, new ventilation and air conditioning systems have been installed. Also in the polyclinicupdated electrical equipment, lighting, fire alarm system. A new asphalt pavement has been laid on the territory. There are drawings of favorite cartoon characters on the walls, it’s light in the corridors and doctors’ offices. Thanks to the work carried out, the quality of medical care has improved for more than 3 thousand young residents of Sharya.

The development of children’s healthcare, including the creation of a modern infrastructure for providing medical care to children, is one of the main directions of the national project “Healthcare”. It is aimed at improving the preventive direction in pediatrics and obstetrics, the introduction of modern preventive technologies, improving the material and technical base of children’s polyclinics and children’s polyclinic departments, maternity institutions of medical organizations by equipping with new medical equipment.

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“The lesson of numbers”. 1 million schoolchildren took part in the Internet project

Plot National projects

The leaders in the number of schoolchildren taking part in the project among the regions are now: Belgorod Region, Moscow and Moscow region, Omsk Region and Samara region.

After taking a lesson in the framework of the project, students from the 1st to the 11th grade get acquainted with game development and gain knowledge about how games are created, what genres and platforms there are, and also what professions exist in this field. Everyone can take part in the Numbers Lesson by following the link: Numbers lesson.rf/gamedev.

“The computer game industry is one of the fastest growing industries in IT, and we see that it finds interest and response among modern teenagers. According to the results of the first week of the campaign, our stage of the Numbers Lesson, in which the guys try themselves in the roles of game developers, game designers, game marketers and testers, is gaining momentum. Don’t know in your school years who you want to becomeand what profession should you choose, — is normal. This question often worries not only schoolchildren, but also adults. We help kids across the country to gain more knowledge about who they can become in the future. We hope that thanks to a series of our educational initiatives, the participants of today’s lesson and our other projects on game development in 5-7 years, children will choose the gaming industry for their career,” notes Sergey Mardanov, Director of Relations with VK universities.

According to the plot of this year’s simulator, the guys, along with the project characters, get into the game “Homeworkers”, developed by BIT.GAMES studio. Junior high school students try themselves in the roles of programmer, artist and animator. Students of grades 5-8 can transform into game designers, game testersand marketers. And high school students try on the roles of game producers and learn about various genres of game projects, platforms and stages of the game’s life. With the help of simulators, participants construct characters and create animations, put together game elements, test the game and much more.

The success of the VK project is due to the well-coordinated work of the professional team and the relevance of the chosen topic. After all, games are an integral part of our childhood and our life. Thanks to the Numbers Lesson from VK, students from 1st to 11th grade can try themselves in professions from the world of computer games, depending on their age and preferences, expand the scope of existing reality. Simulators„Lesson numbers “ open up new prospects for children to become a developer, designer, architect of games or responsible for their visual part. The numbers lesson has proven its effectiveness from the point of view of early career guidance, and the data on the appeal to the project materials for the first week illustrate the success of the multimedia interactive format and the relevance of the subject, comments Yulia Goryachkina, Deputy General Director of ANO “Digital Economy” in the direction of “Personnel for the digital economy”.

The lesson was prepared by VK and will run until December 12. The project “Lesson in Numbers” is being implemented in support of the federal project “Personnel for the Digital Economy” of the national project “Digital Economy”. The initiators of the Lesson numbers are the Ministry of Education of the Russian Federation, the Ministry of Digital Development, Communications and Mass Communications of the Russian Federation and the ANO Digital Economy. The objectives of the project are the development of schoolchildrendigital competencies and early career guidance: lessons help children navigate the world of professions related to computer technology and programming. The partners of the project in the 2021/22 academic year are Kaspersky Lab, the Sberbank Charitable Foundation, Contribution to the Future, 1C, Yandex, VK, Rosatom. Technology Partner — International School of Programming «Algorithmics».

For 3 years, children, parents and teachers have turned to the lessons available on the project’s website more than 40 million times. The project covered all 85 regions of Russia, and in the 2019/2020 academic year expanded its geography with the support of Rossotrudnichestvo, students of Russian-speaking schools from 100+ countries passed simulators from leading Russian companies of the digital economy.

The Penza Region became the first region to launch the “Numbers Lesson” from the VK company this academic year. An open lesson was held in the region with the participation of the Governor of the Penza region, the Acting Chairman of the Government of the Penza region, experts from VK, the mobile game development studio BIT.GAMES (part of MY.GAMES) and ANO “Digital Economy”. The lesson was held in a hybrid format with the use of the Spherum platform, the recording of the broadcast is available on VKontakte.

Together with the Numbers lesson about game development for schoolchildren, the All-Russian online Olympiad on programming VK and Teach is being held., the main tour will last until December 13. Students of grades 1-9 from all regions of Russia can take part in it.

The project “Lesson in Numbers” is being implemented in support of the federal project “Personnel for the Digital Economy”. Classes on the project’s thematic simulators are held in the form of exciting online games for three age groups: junior, middle and high school students. The methodological materials of the lessons remain available on the websitethe project and   cover a wide range of topics: algorithms, coding, team development, Internet security, project management, artificial intelligence, machine learning, personal assistants, networks and cloud technologies, big data, unmanned transport, neural networks and communications, privacy in the digital world.

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A US Navy destroyer has arrived at the Romanian port of Constanta in the Black Sea

The American missile destroyer Arleigh Burke has arrived in the Romanian port of Constanta, RIA Novosti reports.

According to the Sixth Fleet of the US Navy, the destroyer has been in the Black Sea since November 25. Earlier, the ship also visited the Bulgarian port of Varna.

According to representatives of the department, the vessel conducts operations in the region to “ensure naval security and regional stability”.

Earlier it was reported that the actions of the American destroyer in the region are monitored by the forces and means of the Black Sea Fleet of the Russian Federation.

Russian Deputy Foreign Minister Sergei Ryabkov, in turn, earlier called the actions of NATO member countries in the Black Sea “a game with fire” and warned that Russia is ready to fight back.

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The “Merry Queen” Elizabeth. How the “daughter of Petrov” gave Russia greatness

280 years ago, on the night of December 6, 1741, under the arches of the barracks of the Life Guards of the Preobrazhensky Regiment, the words sounded: “Guys, you know whose daughter I am. They want to imprison me in a monastery. Follow me!»

Thus began and very soon ended the next palace coup of the XVIII century. The coup was bloodless, which greatly contributed to the subsequent softening of morals. The initiator of the coup was given a vow, if successful, not to execute anyone with death. The word was kept. The nominal imperial Decree of May 17, 1744 actually abolished the death penalty in Russia.

This Decree was signed by the Empress Elizabeth. The Emperor’s daughter Peter the Great, which, in fact, she insisted on in her appeal to the Life Guards. She spent twenty years and one month on the Russian throne. It is believed that this very formulation — «spent on the throne— —  describes the reign of Elizabeth most correctly.

Many Russian historians flatly deny Peter’s daughter any noticeable abilities to manage a huge empire. Let’s say Nikolay Karamzin in his “Notes on ancient and new Russia” he claimed: “A French doctor and several drunken grenadiers elevated daughter Petrova to the throne of the greatest empire in the world with exclamations: “Death to foreigners! Honor to the Russians!The first days of this reign were marked by the insolence of the glorious label company, the laying of a blue ribbon on the Little Russian singer and the disaster of our state benefactors.Osterman and Minich whose fault was the opinion that Elizabeth, idle, voluptuous, could not manage the state well… In general, Elizabeth’s reign was not famous for any brilliant deeds of the state mind.

A representative of the next generation of historians, Vasily Klyuchevsky, Elizabeth’s personality and the results of her reign are about the same. Perhaps a little more condescending: “Lazy and capricious, she was afraid of any serious thought, having an aversion to any business activity. The map of Europe lay in front of her at her disposal, but she looked at it so rarely that for the rest of her life she was sure of the possibilitytravel to England by land. Russian Russian lady Elizabeth was smart and kind, but disorderly and wayward of the XVIII century., which according to the Russian custom, many scolded during her lifetime and, also according to the Russian custom, everyone mourned for death. Since the reign of Princess Sophia, life has never been so easy in Russia, and no reign has left such a pleasant memory in itself.

It is not surprising that as a result, the most capacious characteristic of Elizabeth’s reign is still considered by many to be a stanza from a wonderful humorous poetic treatise .Alexey Konstantinovich Tolstoy “The history of the Russian state from Gostomysl to Timashev”;:

The merry Queen
Was Elizabeth:
Sings and has fun,
There is just no order.

It’s time to take stock. What’s not there? Order, «business thoughts », «serious studies », and, most importantly, «brilliant deeds of the state mind ». And what is there? A wardrobe of fifteen thousand dresses, a passion for balls and masquerades, multi-day hunts and all kinds of entertainment. And also a monstrous budget deficit, which is believed to have been caused by reckless spending in pursuit of luxury and pleasure.

For some mysterious reason, even the most intelligent and astute people seriously believe that the “brilliant deeds of the mind of the state” must necessarily be accompanied by bloodshed. In fact, who is a successful sovereign? The one who leads large-scale and, preferably, successful wars, joins new territories, puts enemies to shame and thereby exalts his Fatherland.

No doubt, it’s all necessary. Moreover, this is indeed a necessary condition for the glorification of the Fatherland. Necessary — yes. But is it sufficient?

And here it is necessary to think carefully. In the time of Elizabeth, Russia joined the conditional club of the Great Powers of Europe. But this greatness was second-rate. Yes, a strong army. Yes, the fleet. Yes, an enviable and reliable trading partner. And what else is there in this mysterious northern country? What can Russia boast of? Writers? Musicians? Composers? Scientists? Artists? Playwrights? Philosophers?

The times when our country will surprise and amaze the whole world with names Tolstoy, Tchaikovsky, Mendeleev, Levitan, Chekhov and Berdyaev they will come again. In about a hundred and fifty years.

And in Elizabeth’s time, in this regard, Russia was a desert where there was nothing at all. However, as you know, a big road begins with a small step. It was under Elizabeth, or rather, at her whim, that Russia embarked on this path. What reasons the “merry queen” was guided by is not so important. Even the motivation «I want it to be no worse than people»  also deserves attention. Because the steps, if you look closely, were made and not so small.

The University was founded. The Academy of Arts was founded. An architectural school is being created, which marked the beginning of architectural education in Russia. The Imperial Theater was established.

All these are — things to grow. They require large investments, punch a hole in the budget here and now, and you have to wait for a very, very long time for returns. But with the right approach, the result will justify everything, even the wildest expectations.

The foundations of Russia’s future cultural greatness were laid just under Elizabeth. And it’s time to finally get used to making a mental correction about the “brilliant deeds of the state mind”. Because investments in science and culture are no less important than in the army and industry.

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“They burned all the villages.” The defeat of the Germans near Moscow through the eyes of eyewitnesses

Plot World History with Andrey Sidorchik

December 5, 1941, in the history of not only the Great Patriotic War, but also the Second World War as a whole, became the most important date. On this day, the troops of the Kalinin Front, going on the offensive, broke through the enemy’s defenses and managed to advance 4-5 kilometers.

“They are hurriedly retreating, abandoning equipment, weapons and suffering huge losses…»

In the first hours, the Nazis were sure that we were talking about a local operation, which they could easily cope with. However, the next day, parts of the Western and Southwestern Fronts began their offensive actions.

A couple of days later, the Germans admitted that they were facing a crisis that they had not experienced during the entire war period. Hitler’s directive on the transition to defense on all sectors of the front did not fundamentally change the picture. The Wehrmacht rolled back from Moscow.

On December 11, 1941, the exultant voice of the announcer Yuri Levitan sounded on the radio: “The troops of our Western Front, having exhausted the enemy in the previous battles, launched a counteroffensive against his shock flank groups. As a result of the launched offensive, both of these groups are defeated and hastily withdraw, abandoning equipment, weapons and incurring huge losses…»

The defeat of the Wehrmacht near Moscow became a worldwide sensation. The German military machine, which received the reputation of invincible after the campaign in Europe, received such a savory slap in the face for the first time. There was a force capable of fighting the Third Reich on equal terms.

The plan of a lightning war, on which the calculations of Hitler’s strategists were based, was finally buried. And the most far-sighted German military figures predicted that nothing good would end the Eastern campaign now.

How did their direct witnesses and participants remember those December days of 1941?

“After the Wedge was liberated by us, British Foreign Minister Eden arrived there”

Marshal Georgy Zhukov, during the Battle of Moscow, the commander of the Western Front: “On the first day of the offensive, the troops of the Kalinin Front wedged into the front line of the enemy’s defense, but could not overturn the enemy. Only after ten days of hard fighting and changes in offensive tactics, the front’s troops began to move forward. This happened after the right wing of the Western Front defeated the German grouping in the Rogachevo area of Solnechnogorsk and bypassed the Wedge on December 13, the 1st Shock Army and part of the forces of the 30th Army of the Western Front approached the Wedge. Covering the city from all sides,Soviet troops broke into it and after fierce fighting on the night of December 15 cleared the Wedge from the enemy… After the Wedge was liberated by us, British Foreign Minister A. Eden arrived there. At the end of December, we read in the “Truth” a statement by A. Eden, made by him upon his return to London. Sharing his impressions of his trip to the USSR, he said: “I was happy to see some of the exploits of the Russian armies, feats truly magnificent.”

«If a hut or two was preserved somewhere, then it was necessarily mined»

Marshal Konstantin Rokossovsky During the Battle of Moscow, the commander of the 16th Army: “During the retreat, the German troops did everything to slow down our offensive. They heavily mined roads, arranged all kinds of booby traps. The army headquarters tried to be closer to the head units, and we often had to overtake the troops, advancing where our sappers had not yet had time to remove mine obstacles. The feeling, I will say, is not pleasant… On their way, the Nazis burned all the villages. If a hut or two was preserved somewhere, then it must have been mined. I remember once wewith … several comrades settled down to warm up in the surviving house. It was necessary to make an urgent decision and prepare an order for the troops to act the next day. The house, of course, had already been cleared, which was confirmed by the defused mines lying nearby. Just as we were about to get down to business, first the correspondents came in, and then a few more people with movie cameras. The room was filled with people. In such conditions, it’s not up to work. I had to make a sad joke about the mine danger, and pretty soon the hut was empty.

Commander of the 16th Army of the Western Front, Lieutenant General K.K. Rokossovsky under Istra (second from the right). A frame from the documentary film “The defeat of the German troops near Moscow. October 1941 —January 1942 gg.» Central Newsreel Studio. 1942. Photo: RIA Novosti/S.Shcherbakov

«Garno we ground them. They’ve beaten up Moscow, the critters!»

General Afanasy Beloborodov, in December 1941, the commander of the 9th Guards Rifle Division: “The Fascist strongholds located in the building of the Snigirev school and at the brick factory fell at dawn. They were defeated by Captain Tertyshny’s heavy howitzer division with their fire. When the gunners changed their firing positions, the commissar of the division, Politruk RomanchenkoI stopped the column near the school — let the fighters be clearly convinced of the strength of their weapons. In the building, under the collapsed beams, among broken bricks, twisted iron, twisted anti-tank guns and machine guns, hundreds of corpses of SS men from the Fuhrer regiment were lying.

A short rally was held. Gunner Sergeant Petrenko said:

— Garno we ground them. They’ve beaten up Moscow, the critters! And we, the lads, will visit Berlin in kind. Is that so?

— So! — the gunners answered together ».

“After five days of continuous fighting, no more than 10 fighters remained from the battalion”

Ivan Padalko, in December 1941, assistant platoon commander of the 1166th rifle Regiment of the 346th Rifle Division: “The first days of our stay at the front, our first baptism of fire, were remembered for life. We arrived at the front in new white sheepskin coats and fur mittens. After five days of continuous fighting, no more than 10 fighters remained from the battalion, and our beautiful uniforms almost fell into disrepair… The fighting continued, we liberated settlements,exhausting the opponent. Finally, our offensive stopped near the town of Belev, which stretches along the banks of the Oka River. It was here that for the first time I saw a salvo of our guards mortars “Katyusha”. The effect of the heavy fire “katyusha” was amazing, but I found out about it much later, when, continuing the way to the west, we passed the German positions, the fascists fled, throwing weapons in the trenches, the burnt corpses of dead soldiers and wounded”.

The Battle for Moscow. December 1941. Artillery crews are fighting in the forest near Moscow. Photo: RIA Novosti/Oleg Knorring

“Potatoes have fallen in price for collective farmers. This is how they respond to our victories. The German retreats, and they retreat”

A resident of Moscow, a journalist Nikolay Verzhbitsky, from the diaries for December 1941: “December 11. We have returned Yelets – a very important node, a strategic point. Big trophies…

December 13, 1941. — maybe from this date historians will begin the period of the defeat of fascism in the planetary war…

And in general, in these days of joyful victories and the defeat of the Germans near Moscow, there is no special rejoicing. Everyone rejoices very restrained. Muscovites are just beginning to really understand what disaster awaited them and from what misfortune they were freed… Then they will understand. Such majestic events really reach the senses and consciousness when time pushes them somewhat into the past.

The collective farmers’ potatoes have fallen in price – 6-7 rubles. This is how they respond to our victories. The German retreats, and they retreat.

“In the liberated village”. A woman embraces a Soviet soldier after the liberation of her village during the Soviet counteroffensive near Moscow. Photo: RIA Novosti/Ivan Shagin

“Understand, I’m dying, I’m going to die, I feel it”

From a letter from Wehrmacht Private Folheimer to his wife, December 1941: “Hell is here. The Russians don’t want to leave Moscow. They began to advance. Every hour brings terrible news for us. I beg you, stop writing to me about the silk and rubber boots that I promised to bring you from Moscow. Understand, I’m dying, I’m going to die, I feel it.”

“The memory of Napoleon’s Great Army haunted us like a ghost”

General Gunther Blumentritt, in December 1941, the chief of staff of the 4th Army of the Wehrmacht: “We did not believe that the situation could have changed so much after our decisive victories, when the capital seemed almost to be in our hands. The Russians surprised us. The troops now recalled with indignation the pompous October statements of our Ministry of Propaganda… The memory of Napoleon’s Great Army haunted us like a ghost. The book of memoirs of Napoleon’s General Caulaincourt, always lying on Field Marshal von Kluge’s desk, became histhe Bible. Russian Russian counteroffensive began with the fact that the superior forces of the Russians struck north of Moscow. There were more and more coincidences with the events of 1812. In those bad conditions, German tank troops could not withstand the strongest Russian pressure and were forced to slowly retreat, continuing to fight hard in deep snow and hoping to restore a united front further west. During the retreat we left a lot of heavy weapons… In the battles with the enemy we suffered heavy losses».

The beginning of the Soviet counteroffensive near Moscow

Marching companies are sent to the front directly from Moscow. In the background is the house No. 17 on Tverskaya Street. © Commons.wikimedia.org/RIA Novosti archive/Oleg Ignatovich

Soviet planes fly around enemy positions near Moscow. © RIA Novosti/Samari Gurari

Masked soldiers go on the attack in a village near Moscow occupied by Nazi troops. © RIA Novosti/A frame from the documentary “The defeat of the Nazi troops near Moscow”

The beginning of the Red Army’s counteroffensive. Soviet troops are passing along the street of the liberated village. © RIA Novosti/Samari Gurari

Broken German tanks near Moscow. © RIA Novosti/Samari Gurari

Captured German artillery. © RIA Novosti

Captured German equipment. © RIA Novosti/Alexander Kapustyansky

A German cemetery and a broken cannon. © RIA Novosti

The moment of the Battle for Moscow. The fighting lasted from September 30, 1941 to April 20, 1942 and ended with the strategic victory of the USSR and the collapse of the Barbarossa plan. © RIA Novosti

Marching companies are sent to the front directly from Moscow. In the background is the house No. 17 on Tverskaya Street. © Commons.wikimedia.org/RIA Novosti archive/Oleg Ignatovich

Soviet planes fly around enemy positions near Moscow. © RIA Novosti/Samari Gurari

Masked soldiers go on the attack in a village near Moscow occupied by Nazi troops. © RIA Novosti/A frame from the documentary “The defeat of the Nazi troops near Moscow”

The beginning of the Red Army’s counteroffensive. Soviet troops are passing along the street of the liberated village. © RIA Novosti/Samari Gurari

Broken German tanks near Moscow. © RIA Novosti/Samari Gurari

Captured German artillery. © RIA Novosti

Captured German equipment. © RIA Novosti/Alexander Kapustyansky

A German cemetery and a broken cannon. © RIA Novosti

The moment of the Battle for Moscow. The fighting lasted from September 30, 1941 to April 20, 1942 and ended with the strategic victory of the USSR and the collapse of the Barbarossa plan. © RIA Novosti

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Analysts named the most drinking countries in the world

Australia turned out to be the country with the highest alcohol consumption, according to the results of the Global Study on Drugs and Alcohol (GDR2021).

Australians got drunk an average of 27 times in 2020. This is almost twice the global average – 15 times. Denmark and Finland also entered the top three.

In addition, Australians drink alcohol on average twice a week (106 times a year). According to this indicator, France is in the lead 132 times a year, New Zealand and the Netherlands are in second and third places.

32 thousand people from 22 countries took part in the study. Russia was not included in the list.

Earlier it was reported that experts expect an increase in the cost of alcoholic beverages in the Russian Federation and do not exclude the occurrence of its deficit after the New Year.

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What are xenobots capable of? Scientists have seen that robots can reproduce

The world won’t be the same anymore. Humanity itself brings closer the reality that writers and cinematographers working in the genre of fiction love so much. In it, robots reproduce themselves without asking permission from their creator. And a person in this reality is assigned a certain secondary role, depending on the situation.

Last year, American scientists with the help of a supercomputer developed biorobots – living machines from frog embryonic cells. And now it turned out that they can spontaneously reproduce.

What are these organisms?

In January 2020, it became known about a successful experiment by biologists at Tufts University (USA). They took an embryo of an African clawed frog, isolated stem cells from it, manually separated them and placed them in a Petri dish. There these cells joined together and formed a new organism of microscopic (less than a millimeter) size, a tiny clot of pink flesh. He could move, group, push small loads, find set targets and recover from damage.

In fact, such clots became the first biorobots in history consisting of living cells. Scientists called them xenobots in honor of the Latin name of the frog (Xenopus laevis). But what does robots have to do with it at all? Why can’t we just call it a synthetic organism?

And the thing is that the appearance and behavior of xenobots were set by artificial intelligence. With the help of a supercomputer, scientists have made calculations determining what these microscopic creatures should look like and what they should do. AI analyzed billions of potential body shapes and found the ideal one that would allow frog cells to produce so-called kinetic replication. This process usually occurs at the molecular level, on the scale of whole cells or organisms, it has not been observed before.

What can they do?

The unique organisms created in accordance with the computer program participated in the tests last year.They moved in concert and explored the habitat, feeding on germinal energy reserves. In later experiments, they moved in a circle, pushed pellets placed in the liquid (both singly and together) and even transported them on their bodies.

A new work by American scientists shows that xenobots are capable of more: reproducing their own kind. Actually, they were created for this purpose: to study the possibilities of self-reproducing systems. When AI tested different forms of biorobots’ bodies, it focused precisely on making them more efficient at replication. Triangles, squares, pyramids, asterisks were analyzed, and as a result, the supercomputer settled on a C-shape.

The experiment showed that artificial intelligence was right. It was with this body shape that xenobots were able to create their own kind. They collect separately floating cells in a Petri dish, hold them inside their mouth, and form cubs.After a few days, they become adults, look and move just like the rest. This process was repeated over and over again:a group of 12 xenobots, using 60 thousand cells, created one or two new generations.

“These cells carry the frog genome, but once freed from turning into tadpoles, they use their collective intelligence and plasticity to do something amazing,” says Sam Kriegman, lead author of the study. — They reproduce in a completely different way than frogs do. No animal or plant known to science reproduces in this way.

Why are they needed?

Reproduction of robots (especially live ones!) it can puzzle anyone. Imagination draws scenes from the Terminator or some kind of Robot Uprising, where machines have gone out of control and are trying to enslave people. The authors of the study assure that there is nothing to be afraid of. Not yet, anyway. The organisms created by them are in a controlled environment, and if desired, it can be easily destroyed.

But what are they for anyway? Experiments conducted by American scientists show that it is possible to put a computer program into an artificially created biological object (representing, in fact, a new form of life) and force it to perform the same actions repeatedly. According to the researchers, such biorobots can be used to search for traces of radioactive contamination, collect microplastics in the ocean or clean blood vessels from plaques. Of the medical applications, they also mention the development of vaccines against new viruses and the creation of medicines.

Xenobots will be able to survive in an aquatic environment without additional nutrients for several days or even weeks. And after recycling, they will become a part of nature and will not cause any harm to it, unlike metal or plastic, from which ordinary robots are made.

Источник aif.ru