Acceleration passed. Which hypersonic systems are most interested in the United States

The United States intends to accelerate the deployment of hypersonic weapons. As noted in the Pentagon, the priority of the United States is the development of air-launched cruise missiles that are compatible with other hypersonic platforms. АиФ.ги I understood what the US wants and what its real capabilities are in the field of hypersound.

Currently, the United States is developing both defensive and offensive systems in this area. Moreover, it is planned that each type of troops will use a standard hypersonic missile, while developing individual weapons systems and launchers.

In August 2020, the US Congressional Research Service reported that the specialized institutes of the US Armed Forces are working on three areas in the field of hypersonic weapons. A non-nuclear rapid strike is being developed, as part of this program, a planning unit and a ballistic missile are being created, launched from the Virginia-class submarines. The development of long-range hypersonic weapons, a planning unit with a range of about, is also underway.2200 kilometers. In particular, the range of the US Army’s Long-Range Hypersonic Weapon hypersonic missile will exceed 2,775 kilometers. A similar indicator will be found in the Conventional Prompt Strike missile of the US Navy. On May 19, the US military revealed details of another of the developments, without giving the name of the program. The long-range hypersonic missile will be capable of reaching speeds of 17 times the speed of sound, and can hit targets at a distance of almost 2.8 thousand kilometers.km.

The plans include the creation of air-based rapid reaction weapons. This program involves the creation of a combat unit capable of reaching speeds of up to 20 Mach and a range of about 925 kilometers. Apparently, it is in the priority of the representatives of the Pentagon.

In confirmation of the seriousness of its intentions, the United States constantly conducts weapons tests. For example, on May 28, it was reported that the US Navy conducted the first fire tests of the hypersonic missile engine. Tests of the missile were conducted in the state of Utah under the management of the strategic systems program of the Navy.

But, apparently, the real state of affairs with hypersound in the United States is very different from the plans. For example, in March, the Congressional Budget Office published a report in which the United States acknowledged that it did not have enough advanced technology to create hypersonic weapons. In connection with this, the program of its deployment may be implemented with a long delay. In early April 2021, the US Air Force reported a failure during a test of an air-launched hypersonic weapon. Due to the problems encountered, the launch vehicle did not launch.

But in any case, the development of hypersonic weapons is currently being conducted in broad cooperation by leading American companies. Dynetics Technical Solutions will be the first company to produce prototypes of hypersonic gliding warheads, and Lockheed Martin will serve as a system integrator for this type of weapon. The amount of Lockheed Martin’s contracts for the development of hypersonic weapons already exceeds $2.5 billion.

Dynetics, based in Huntsville, Alabama, will produce the first mass-produced prototype set of Common-Hypersonic Glide Body systems.

General Atomics Electromagnetic Systems will provide cable, electrical and mechanical production. Lockheed will support production, assembly, integration, testing, system design, and analysis.

Источник aif.ru

And who will fight? Pushkin! The last great-grandson of the poet partisan in the Second World War

Weekly magazine “Argumenty I Fakty” No. 22. Grandfather-hydromet? How to improve the accuracy of weather forecasts 02/06/2021

Many stories from the life of the last great-grandson of A. S. Pushkin are similar to legends or anecdotes, but they really happened, says the writer-Pushkinist Larisa Cherkashina. Thanks to her father, who had been studying the poet’s genealogy for many years, she was closely acquainted withBy Grigory Pushkin.

The fifth son in the family Grigory (grandson of Alexander Sergeyevich) and Julia, he was named in honor of the founder of the genus Grigory Cannon. Having appeared on the light on the day of St. Nicholas the Winter, the boy had to bear the name of the miracle worker. But the couple already had Nikolai. Though not Pushkin. That’s where the “soap opera” is!

Grigory Alexandrovich Pushkin passionately loved Yulia Barteneva, but for some reason she married his regimental comrade Katybaeva who turned out to be a gambling spendthrift. Nevertheless, she gave birth to Fyodor and Nikolai. Alexander appeared to her between marriages, to the same in Tsarskoye Selo: he was conceived by Pushkin, but was considered Katybaev. After the wedding of Julia and Grigory, the family was replenished with two more sons. By Sergey (died at the age of eight) and Gregory. Alexander Katybaev (by blood  Pushkin) died in 1943 near Kharkiv. And Grigory Grigoryevich was destined to become the last great-grandson of the genius of Russian literature.

Oh, that maid!

& nbsp; He was an independent and original person, & nbsp; & nbsp; told & laquo; AIF & raquo; Larisa Cherkashina. Getting into his confidence was difficult at first. You ask about the war, and he shrugs it off: “The task was completed” Only years later, when I became his ” own ” for him, the great-grandson openly shared stories about his family, his childhood in the family estate of the Goncharovs

It was in this house in the revolutionary 1917 that an amazing story happened. One day, while watching the canaries, the Katybaev-Pushkin boys noticed that the bottom of the cage was covered with yellowed written sheets. They asked the maid to give them the same paper, ostensibly for a kite. A & nbsp; she took them to the basementand & nbsp; opened the chest –once upon a time, by & nbsp;misunderstanding, it was left at the Goncharovs ‘ by Pushkin’s eldest son Alexander. In the treasured casket were locked the notes of the poet “The Story of Peter”, which later made up an entire volume in his collected works. And if the boys were less attentive? Indifferent?..

The younger Grigory, by the way, was not fond of poetry, he mastered the profession of zootechnicist at the veterinary technical school. And went to the Institute of Animal Husbandry. A special set in the Red Army forced him to take up arms. A rifle regiment with subordination to Yagoda. Participation in the Polish campaign. The Soviet-Finnish War & hellip; And then & nbsp; suddenly MOORE: called to the district committee of the Komsomol and handed a ticket. However, they warned: “The work is dangerous. Would you rather go to a museum?”Grigory replied:” We have a military surname, and the Pushkins never ran away from the service and the war.”

Red Army soldier Grigory Pushkin, 1937 Photo: Larisa Cherkashina

About the work in the criminal investigation department, my grandson did not like to remember, he only said: “There were a lot of evil spirits, bandits” I know one thing for sure: it was Lieutenant Pushkin who discovered the theft of fur coats from foreigners in the Bolshoi Theater.

Later, after finding this story in the archive of the Ministry of Internal Affairs, the Weiners included it in the novel “The Era of Mercy”, and in the film Govorukhin “The meeting place can not be changed”this episode was brilliantly played Yevgeny Evstigneev and Ekaterina Gradova.

Meeting with Mueller

In June 1941, Pushkin was appointed deputy head of the criminal investigation department of the ROVD. And a few days later he was partisan near Moscow. One day the squad was assigned to recapture two hundred Russian girls from the Germans, who were to be sent to work in Germany. The party was divided into groups and led the women out in parts by hidden forest paths. Hungry, they would faint. Suddenly, a German in a britzka came towards us. Cheerful,in & nbsp; drunk. He rides and plays the accordion. It’s like being at home. The partisans seized him. And this Muller (this was the last name of the prisoner) almost falls on his knees, asks not to kill. He says that in Berlin he learned Russian and read Eugene Onegin. Our soldiers burst out laughing: “The great-grandson of Pushkin himself took you prisoner!”The man’s eyes widened:” It can’t be! You have all the nobles shot or sent to Solovki…»

It happened near Dorokhov on September 30, 1941, and in the spring of 1965, when Victory Day was being celebrated in Moscow, a translator approached Grigory Pushkin at an evening in the Central House of Labor: “A foreign citizen is looking for you.”Karl Muller?

Grigory Grigoryevich had Pushkin’s humour and always had a good word ready. At the same time, he behaved with dignity, nobly. I’ve never been proud of my background.

Perhaps only once did the surname cover Pushkin as a shield. On the eve of the next meat grinder of the Korsun-Shevchenko operation in 1944, the commander of Grigory unexpectedly hooked him with the usual: “Who will do this?” Pushkin?”But when he found out that he was not just a namesake of the poet, he could not resist:” Well, you’re a fool! They’ll kill you!”And sent Grigory on some errand away from the cauldron.”

Descendants of A. S. Pushkin-participants of the Great Patriotic War. From left to right: O. V. Kologrivov, G. G. Pushkin, S. E. Klimenko (with the Pushkin volume), S. B. Pushkin, B. B. Pushkin, A.V. Kologrivov. Artist V. Pereyaslavets. 1957 Photo: reproduction

Pushkin could not avoid injuries and contusions. And there were four steps to death. For the capture of two “languages” and the destruction of several dozen enemy soldiers during a combat mission, Grigory was awarded the Order of the Patriotic War II degree.

But fate still kept him safe. So that after the war, he also worked in MOORE, and in the typographic department of the publishing house “Pravda”. His main business during his retirement was traveling to Pushkin places and meeting people. He loved the Captain’s daughter. There was always a volume of poetry on the table. But when he was asked to read something, Grigory Pushkin recited one thing: “I am just a great-grandson, not a poet. There is no talent for writing poetry. And the audience burst into applause.

Recently, the great-grandson was remembered twice a year: on the poet’s birthday on June 6 and on the day of his death on February 10. In the 1990s, Grigory Grigorievich was ill and in poverty. He even asked me to sell a bronze inkwell to Maria Hartung, the daughter of Alexander Sergeyevich. Only care Larisa Andreyevna Cherkashina and a combination of circumstances did not allow the family heirloom to go into the wrong hands. Today, the inkwell is on display in the Pushkin Museum-apartment on the Arbat.

And how did we change the sofa for him? The great-grandson of the genius literally had nothing to sleep on. A friend then brought Herman Sterligov, and he very delicately left an envelope with money on the table.

Grigory Pushkin lived for 83 years. He is survived by a daughter, Julia, from his first marriage (he remarried the widow of a fellow Murovite, taking her with two children). And here are two Alexander’s from different marriages died   one in & nbsp; 6 & nbsp;years, the second & nbsp; & nbsp; in & nbsp; 40. & nbsp; On the male line there is no continuation & hellip;

Источник aif.ru

The raised virgin land of Bondarenko. For what the Don farmer received the title of Hero

Weekly magazine “Argumenty I Fakty” No. 22. Grandfather-hydromet? How to improve the accuracy of weather forecasts 02/06/2021

That he became a Hero of labor, Alexander Bondarenko I learned it at work. I was surprised, moved, and started my harvester again: the next days were going to be rainy, so I had to hurry.

We arrived in Krasnaya Polyana (a village in the Peschanokopsky district) in the rain. Alexander Dmitrievich was waiting at the gate: he parked the car, ordered in a masterly way where to go, where to sit down. He speaks briefly and sternly, which is probably why his brigade was in good order, and there was always enough fuel, and the equipment was repaired on time. Drunkenness here is still not tolerates, and & nbsp;himself if overturns a glass, then only on & nbsp; holidays. Although where are those holidays, if with great difficulty I remembered that for 49 years of experience in & nbsp; vacation I was only a few times: in sanatoriums for health and with children on the sea.

I have no interest in a vacation: I didn’t know what to do there. And there is always a lot of work at home, says Alexander Dmitrievich.

Where I was born, I came in handy there

Little is said about Bondarenko’s family: his mother and father were not married, so his father was replaced by his grandfather, a front-line soldier, a disabled war veteran. Times were difficult (Bondarenko was born in 1951), they did not fatten: borscht on lard, darned trousers, from the most delicious treats in the world-candy pads. But so it was with everyone.

I loved movies. But there were no 5 kopecks for a movie in the club. You steal four eggs from your grandmother, take them to the edge of the village, where one of them took them, and now you have enough money for a ticket. I loved the “Quiet Don” and the “Raised virgin land” about the war… And then it turned out so in my life that I myself visited this virgin land. In the Turgay region, in 1980, they threshed 12 quintals of grain. Where to put that grain, did not know…

After school, Bondarenko served in the army and saw no other way but to return to his native village. I knew, of course, that someone was entering institutes and colleges, I tried to become a zoo technician myself, but I was pushed around for a week in the city and ran away home.

He worked on a tractor and a combine harvester, built a house, got married and lived exactly like the positive characters in the films on which he grew up.

I had an understanding that work makes a person human. That it is necessary to work not for money, but for the good of the country. That’s what they used to teach us. Back in school, the teacher singled me out and appointed me the foreman of the student team. I was thinking: “Me? For what?»  & ndash; recalls Bondarenko.That was the first time I left our village for Rostov. Student foremen came from all over the country to attend the rally. And I’m among them, kind of like the state had hope for me, too.

& nbsp; But you have a trip to Bulgaria here in the photo album 

Oh, so it’s later. We then went as a delegation to the Day of the Liberation of Bulgaria. I was already a foreman.

& ndash; Did you like their life?

Life is like life. On a combine harvester there with the girls passed. On our, Rostselmashevsky & ndash; it was a pride. And & nbsp; so  & ndash; nothing like that. Everyone then only ran for books. I didn’t have much money, but I also bought books. There’s a & nbsp; mail nearby & nbsp; & ndash; sent. My wife received my parcel, dragged it home and wondered: what’s there? I did not guess & nbsp; & ndash; we laughed for a long time afterwards. But the books came in handy. And we did not collect crystals, carpets, too, we never had such an interest.

Bondarenko’s children are also all hardworking. Photo: From the personal archive

Million in a bag

This trip abroad was the first and last. A here on & nbsp;the former Union Bondarenko traveled: helped their advanced link lagging regions in cleaning. While her husband was harvesting someone else’s crop, Nina was raising her own three children, a vegetable garden, and a farm. Yes, and  work  & nbsp; Nina Ivanovna was a milkmaid in the samethe collective farm. At 4 a.m., get up and go to bed after dark. And if the husband is at home, then set his dinner for him, and boil some water. This is now the baths appeared in the villages, and earlier will come after midnight, dirty, dust on the teeth creaks. He will wash in the basin, fall down, and with the first roosters again on the cleaning: the plan is burning, the country is waiting for bread.

On & nbsp;my questions: how is it to work in 40-degree heat, when the combine’s cabin has only a fan made of tin cans, and the fine husk with dust clogs the nostrils, Bondarenko just chuckles. Nina Ivanovna is responsible for him: they say that he is such a natural person who is obsessed with work, if he does not do it, he will not calm down. From hereand & nbsp; over-fulfillment of the plan, and & nbsp; awards: in & nbsp; 1981-m  & ndash; Order of Labor Glory of the III degree, in & nbsp;1991-m  & ndash; Labor Glory of the II degree, in & nbsp; 2006.the title of honorary worker of the agro-industrial complex of the Rostov region, in 2013 he was awarded the Order for Services to the Fatherland of the IV degree. And in 2021, the title of Hero of Labor of Russia.

This award has not yet been presented to Bondarenko, and all the other insignia are on the jacket that Alexander Dmitrievich wears on very special occasions. And when asked why he was given these awards, he shrugs. It’s nice to be noted. That’s all.

A rumor went around the village that I was given a million rubles after the Hero and a two-room apartment in Rostov, laughs.

Was it really given?

So I say the same  & ndash; rumor! Millions are given in  & laquo;Who wants to become a millionaire?». My wife and I watched it recently, and the question was: what is a windbreaker? Among the answers were a cap, something else. And I remember from my childhood that the windbreaker is a trailed mower. That’s my million gone, winks.

Your wife is better

Our conversation is thick. But when it comes to comparing old technology and new technology, it gets lively. A new technique for him, a tractor driver, a combine harvester, a machine operator, is akin to a resort. The cabin is clean, cool, and pleasant. If earlier on the DT-75 tractor with a 4-meter cultivator, he could process 25 hectares in a day, and if he plowed, then 40, now with an 11-meter cultivator and a powerful new-generation equipment, all 200 hectares.

Which equipment is better than ours or Belarusian?

For everyone, their own wife is better. And I didn’t work on the imported one. As I sat down on the “Rostselmashev” Across 530, so I do not get off it. Previously, if the field broke down, it was necessary to sort out the entire tractor itself. Now one call –and & nbsp; the service is already on its way.

So you like everything about today’s life?

Well, maybe not all of them. There are few people in the village. Previously, there were 2.2 thousand only working, and now there are only 3 thousand residents. There are not enough young people, they do not want to work on the land, there is no one to teach. I have also brought my sons into the business. Maybe they were offended earlier that I didn’t finish something, that they already worked with me at school age, but now they are nothing: the senior agronomist, the junior mechanic, don’t worry. Granddaughter also in & nbsp; tractor drivers marks  & ndash; a little more, and & nbsp;as soon as he arrives, immediately to the tractor. Also hope.

Bondarenko’s labor exploits were noted more than once. Photo: From the personal archive

In the 1990s, your Kirov collective farm became a joint-stock company. Many have gone to the farmers. Why did you stay?

I have always had a job under any government. Our guys, who were electricians, were left without work, so they went to the farmers. When it all started in the 1990s, we didn’t realize that capitalism was coming. Well, they gave us land of 7.3 hectares. And what should we do with it? Someone sold for a penny, someone handed over. All this is from another life. Now we are retired, no longerbefore that. But I’m working. And in the season, if you take a responsible approach to the case, you can earn up to 70 thousand rubles. It seems like a lot, but it’s in the season. In winter, the money goes away. But we are old people, what do we need? I even eat like a city man, and Alexander Dmitrievich looks reproachfully at my half-empty plate.& nbsp; & ndash; Used to have dinner, as it should be.

*  *  *

There is, & laquo;as an urban», it has become from age and & nbsp;because of occupational diseases. Stones in the kidneys (with an attack taken directly from the field), pricked  and  returned there; 10 years ago already at home the heart went   thought a heart attack, but managed a pre-infarction condition. Now he jokes that he has a hobby: taking pills and tracking how he feels. At the same time, it works. In November, Bondarenko will be 70 years old.

– You, I see, have a computer and the Internet. What are you reading, watching?

I correspond with my classmates. When I was awarded the Hero, everyone congratulated me. Many of them have moved away and live all over Russia. There are only a few people left in our village. And I stayed, because when my wife and I met, I immediately said: I’m not going anywhere from here, not even to the next street. So we live.

Источник aif.ru

What will be on the trains instead of the restaurant cars?

Weekly magazine “Argumenty I Fakty” No. 22. Grandfather-hydromet? How to improve the accuracy of weather forecasts 02/06/2021

Is it true that all the dining cars will be removed from the trains? And what about long-distance trains?

Expert’s response 0 + –

As told by General Director of JSC “Russian Railways” Oleg Belozerov, the dining cars are planned to be retained only on some trains. “I perceive the restaurant car as something expensive. We believe that it should be left in certain trains: branded, tourist, Belozerov said.

But and passengers of other trains will not remain hungry — there are equipped with bistro cars. Now food is prepared in trains from raw products and semi-finished products, and the range and quality of dishes depend on the operator company. The bistro cars will load sterile containers with pre-prepared meals. In & nbsp; trains & nbsp; the samethey will only be warmed up. Quality control is also provided. You will be able to eat not only in the bistro car, but also in your own place in the car.

At the same time, Russian Railways stressed that there is no talk of fast food. In the bistro cars, you can buy children’s and vegetarian dishes, as well as soups, salads, hot dishes of meat and fish.

Источник aif.ru

Blitzkrieg on pills. How the Third Reich fed soldiers ” dope»

Plot World History with Andrey Sidorchik

On May 10, 1940, Hitler’s forces launched an operation codenamed “Gelb”. It provided for the capture of Belgium, the Netherlands and Luxembourg in the shortest possible time. The second stage of the plan was Operation Roth, which was supposed to defeat France.

“They rush into the breakout with tanks and armored vehicles”

Just five days after the start of the German offensive, the French Prime Minister Paul Raynaud called London.Winston Churchill, stating: “We were defeated… They rush into the breakout with tanks and armored vehicles. Churchill tried to calm Raynaud down, but Raynaud kept repeating, ” No, we are defeated, we have lost the battle.” 

The blow inflicted by the Wehrmacht was truly amazing.It took the Wehrmacht only five days to capture Holland. In Belgium, in the first days of the war, the Nazis captured key points, which allowed them to successfully develop a further offensive. By May 14, seven German panzer divisions had crossed the Meuse River. In the area of their actions between Sedan and Namur werereserve French divisions that were defeated in a matter of hours. By 20 May, German units had reached Amiens and Abbeville, and the next day they captured Saint-Paul and Montreuil. North-west of Abbeville, the first German unit-a battalion of the 2nd Panzer Division – reached the sea. Pressed to the sea, the British and French units were no longer concerned with the question of victory, but only with evacuation.

By June 4, the Nazis occupied Northern France and Flanders. Demoralized French units tried to resist, but it was already like agony. A new phase of the offensive, launched by the Germans on June 5, finally brought down the French defenses. Attempts to defend Paris were not even made: the French government fled from the capital to Bordeaux. On June 14, the Hitlerite units entered the main French city without a fight. On June 22, France signed an agreement that meant its actual surrender.

Mr. Nagayoshi’s discovery

No one expected such a turn-neither London, nor Washington, nor Moscow. The Soviet leadership hoped that the Third Reich would be involved in a protracted war in the West, which would give time to complete the rearmament program. But Hitler’s Blitzkrieg broke these plans.

In addition to the excellent training of soldiers and officers, the brilliant leadership of the German generals, the most modern equipment, the German triumph also had another secret. The French were amazed at the endurance of the German military, who made rapid marches, after which they were immediately ready to engage in battle. Such incredible endurance was explained not only by good physical training, but also by the achievements of German pharmacology.

In 1893, a Japanese chemistNagai Nagayoshi he synthesized a substance called methamphetamine from ephedrine. In the course of studying its properties, the amazing effect of the substance on a person was established-he became unusually cheerful, energetic, fatigue went away and new forces appeared. Of course, the harmful effects of drugs were already known by that time. But it was believed that the new drugs, if not harmless at all, then the damage to the body is negligible. The voices of skeptics were immediately drowned out by those who saw great commercial potential in this.

Polish & laquo; debut & raquo;

In the 1930s, German pharmacists from the company Temmler Werke developed their own technology for the production of methamphetamine, releasing it to the market under the commercial name “Pervitin”.

Germany, where the Nazis came to power, was preparing for revenge for the First World War. The leaders of the Third Reich paid attention to the new powerful stimulant. Hitler, having tried pervitin personally, was delighted with the effect and decided that this tool could turn the Wehrmacht into a war machine capable of fighting without sleep and rest.

The baptism of Fire of Pervitin took place during the attack on Poland. After tasting the pills, the Wehrmacht soldiers rushed forward, acting for several days in a row with almost no rest. In addition to fatigue, the feeling of fear disappeared, which made the Nazis real “combat robots”. What was happening made a depressing impression on the Poles, breaking their will to resist.

Having tried the remedy, the military turned to it again and again. And since during the Polish campaign, not so many pervitin was put in the troops, some began to write letters home with a request to buy pervitin in a pharmacy and urgently send it to the front.

“If there were no drugs, there would be no invasion”

After this doping proved to be excellent in Poland, at the stage of preparation for the operation “Gelb”, the company Temmler Werke supplied the Wehrmacht and the Luftwaffe with 35 million doses of pervitin.

Various modifications of this tool were also created. There was even a Panzerschokolade, that is, “tank chocolate”, intended for pilots and tankers. In addition to the actual chocolate, which itself is a stimulant, it also included pervitin.

Amid the jubilation after the defeat of France, few people paid attention to the warnings of German doctors, who noted that the use of stimulants occurs without observing the established restrictions, which leads to the rapid development of addiction.

Researcher Norman Oler who studied the use of stimulants in the Wehrmacht, in an interview with The Guardian, noted that the operation in France would not have taken place at all without pervitin: “There would have been no drugs, there would have been no invasion. When Hitler heard about the plan to invade through the Ardennes, he liked it. However, the High Command stated: “This isimpossible, because we have to rest at night, and in the meantime they will retreat, and we will be stuck in the mountains.” Then a decree was issued on stimulants that would allow the army to stay awake for three days and nights. Rommel and all the panzer division commanders were incredibly active, and without tanks, the Germans would definitely not have been able to win.

“Everyone swallowed this stuff often and in large doses”

Of course, after the successes achieved, the Nazis continued to use pervitin during the attack on the USSR. Although formally, in the summer of 1941, some restrictions were imposed on its use: Hitler’s doctors reported to the command that soldiers who were hooked on the drug very quickly come to the stage of complete physical exhaustion, life-threatening.

Despite this, experts believe that the Nazi army consumed a total of about 200 million pervitin tablets. Russian search engines working in the areas of the battles of the Great Patriotic War, say that they often find packages of stimulants next to the remains of dead Germans. The facts of the use of pervitin are also confirmed by letters from German soldiers. Here, for example, is what Gerd Schmickle of the 7th German Panzer Division wrote in 1943: “I could not sleep. During the attack, I tooktoo much pervitin. We’ve all been addicted to it for a long time. Everyone swallowed this stuff often and in large doses. The pills seemed to relieve anxiety and fear. I plunged into a world of vivid indifference. The danger had ceased to seem so. The powers inherent in man seemed to increase. After the battle, you were in a strange state of ecstasy, in which a deep need for sleep fought with a clear alertness.

Ampoules of pervitin from Germany. It was administered intramuscularly, subcutaneously, or slowly intravenously. Photo: Commons.wikimedia.org

« The arrival of & raquo; Private Koivunen

The Germans and the Allies were treated to pervitin. In particular, the case of a Finnish soldier is described Aimo Koivunenom in the spring of 1944. The group he was part of came across a Soviet unit. After the exchange of fire, the Finns retreated, and the exhausted Koivunen began to lag behind his own. Then he remembered about the package of pervitin, deciding to take a pill. Because of the uncomfortable mittens, the soldier poured himself a whole handful of pills. Without thinking, he ate them all. Soon he was, as they say, “covered”. In a semi-delirious state, he ran through the woods for several days, until finally he was blown up by a mine. When he was picked up a few days later, it turned out that he had covered about 400 kilometers in total.

But in the battles with the Red Army, Pervitin did not provide the Wehrmacht with a decisive advantage. The guys in earflaps and padded jackets, loaded only with 100 grams of vodka from the People’s Commissariat, proved to be hardier and more stable than the Wehrmacht combat robots under Pervitin.

        View this post in Instagram                      

Post by Peter Doornekamp (@peterdoornekamp)

D-IX— & mdash; & nbsp; the last stimulator of the Reich

In the final stages of the war, the pharmacists of the Third Reich were actively working on new, more powerful stimulants. In 1944, they created D-IX, a rattlesnake mixture of pervitin, cocaine, and eukodal (a morphine-based painkiller). According to some reports, the tests were carried out on prisonersthe concentration camps and received a stunning result-exhausted and exhausted prisoners made marches up to 100 kilometers long, without experiencing fatigue. D-IX began to be delivered to the Luftwaffe and the Kringsmarine, but it did not come to production in volumes comparable to Pervitin-the war ended earlier.

In the last months of the fighting, stimulants were given to soldiers and officers of the Wehrmacht almost without restrictions-they literally filled the bags of the orderlies to the top. However, this could not help the doomed Third Reich in any way.

The fate of former Wehrmacht soldiers who lost their health due to pervitin, few people were interested in after the collapse of Nazi Germany. But the work of the German pharmacists, and they themselves, were very interested in the American military, who later used this knowledge.

But that’s another story.

Источник aif.ru

The war does not leave Karabakh. Journalists were blown up by a mine

The hot phase of the war over Nagorno-Karabakh ended last fall. The cold phase continues until now and gathers its bloody harvest. On Friday, two employees of the Azerbaijani state press and a local official were killed in the Kalbajar district, which returned to the control of Azerbaijan.

A military truck “KaMAZ” transporting media representatives to the shooting in the village of Susuzlug, was blown up by an anti-tank mine.As a result, the operator of the AzTV TV channel Siraj Abyshov was killed in 1989.& nbsp; birth, employee of the news agency “AZERTAJ”Maharram Ibragimov born in 1982 anddeputy representative of the head of the Kelbajar district for the administrative-territorial district of the village of Susuzlug Arif Aliyev. Four people were injured in various degrees of severity and were hospitalized. Among them is the director of the Azerbaijani television Emin Mammadov.

As reported by prosecutor General’s Office and Ministry of Internal Affairs of Azerbaijan Many minefields remain in the territories in and around Nagorno-Karabakh that Azerbaijan regained control of after last year’s 44-day war.They were created by the Nagorno-Karabakh Defense Forces in recent decades. The minefields were laid in a chaotic manner to protect the Azerbaijani army from attack, and the maps of the minefields were not drawn up or were lost.  The Azerbaijani authorities constantly accuse Armenia, among other things, that the occupation took place in the very last days before the transfer of a number of territories to Azerbaijan.

The Union of Journalists of Russia expressed its condolences to the relatives and colleagues of the victims.

In late April, Samir Poladov, a representative of the Azerbaijan Mine Action Agency (ANAMA), said that by that time 50 people had been blown up by mines. 18 of them died.Now the dead are 21.More than 20,000 mines and unexploded ordnance have already been cleared in the territories around Karabakh, but the work is still very far from being completed. The Russian Peacekeeping Forces lost one officer during the mine clearance operation.

Kelbajar (Armenian name Karavachar) is located northwest of Stepanakert. The former part of the NKR was part of the Shahumyan district of the NKR. С 25 ноября 2020 г. поитогам Второй Карабахской Войны и на основаниитрехстороннего the agreement between Azerbaijan, Armenia and Russia dated November 10, 2020 transferred the city and the district to Azerbaijan.

The editors of the ” AIF ” also express their condolences to the relatives and friends of the deceased colleagues.

Источник aif.ru

Why are there no eco-friendly shoe covers?

Weekly magazine “Argumenty I Fakty” No. 22. Grandfather-hydromet? How to improve the accuracy of weather forecasts 02/06/2021

Shoe covers are polyethylene, which decomposes in a landfill for hundreds of years. Why don’t they come up with something more poecological?

Expert’s response 0 + –

The polyethylene and chloropolyethylene film used to make disposable shoe covers for visitors can be recycled, the AIF said.Greenpeace Russia project expert Dmitry Nesterov. But to do this, you need to remove the elastic band from them, which is problematic. The most optimal solution here is considered to be the transition to reusable shoe covers, either silicone or made of a special fabric that resembles a raincoat. Reusable shoe covers made of thick soft fabric are already used in museums for the sake of preserving valuable parquet floors, in operating rooms. And, for example, in Irkutsk, some medical centers, beauty salons, fitness clubs, kindergartens, etc. have switched to reusable shoe covers.

Источник aif.ru

How much does it cost to fly to the moon?

Weekly magazine “Argumenty I Fakty” No. 22. Grandfather-hydromet? How to improve the accuracy of weather forecasts 02/06/2021

Roscosmos estimated the cost of a flight to the moon in the amount of 400 billion to 1.7 trillion rubles. And how much did it cost the Americans?

Expert’s response 0 + –

The Apollo space program, completed in 1975, cost the Americans $ 25 billion.& nbsp; at the then prices (now it is 600 billion dollars, or 44 trillion rubles. & mdash; & nbsp;Ed.),  — said„AIF & ldquo; cosmonautics historian, writer Alexander Zheleznyakov. At the preparatory stage of the current NASA lunar program “Artemis”, the Americans have already invested $ 50-60 billion in it, and in general, their costs for this project will probably amount to $ 100 billion (7 trillion rubles). The costs of the Russian Federation in this area are lower than those of the US, but it is difficult to say whether all the costs of a flight to the Moon are taken into accountin our estimate. Our lunar maximum program provides for the use of a super-heavy rocket “Hangar”, a take-off and landing module, rescue equipment, scientific equipment, etc. For a more budget-friendly flight option, a lightweight modification of the ship “Eagle” can be used.

Источник aif.ru

National database of genetic information to be created in Russia

Russia will create a national database of genetic information, and the Ministry of Education and Science and the Ministry of Finance will determine the necessary amount of funds to implement this initiative by July 30.

The corresponding order on the results of the visit to the Kurchatov Institute in Moscow was made by the Prime Minister of the country Mikhail Mishustin, reports Газета.ги.

“In Russia, on behalf of the president, a national database of genetic information is being created,” the government’s press service said.

The agencies will also have to determine the sources of funding for this project by the specified deadline. In addition, it is necessary to present the results of the consideration of the concept of creating a database by the Council for the Implementation of the Federal Scientific and Technical Program for the Development of Genetic Technologies.

Earlier, the head of the Cabinet of Ministers approved the regulation on a Single Data Management Platform, the main task of which will be to improve the quality and accessibility of state and municipal services for citizens.

Источник aif.ru

A strong hurricane passed in Tuva

In the Ulugh-Khem district of Tuva, the hurricane damaged the roofs of houses, cars, cut power lines, and felled trees, the Ministry of Emergency Situations of the republic reported.

The report says that the wind reached 38 meters per second. There is no information about the victims.

The head of the republic Vladislav Khovalyg on his village in “VKontakte” reported on the increased readiness of the emergency services of Tuva. He instructed local administrations to start repairing the damaged structures, roofs, and cleaning up fallen trees.

It is worth noting that unfavorable weather conditions will continue in the region on Sunday. Heavy precipitation in the form of rain and hail, thunderstorms and north-westerly winds of up to 25-30 meters per second are expected there.

Earlier it was reported about the hurricane “Tauktae”, which hit the west coast of India.

Meanwhile, Japanese scientists conducted a study and found out the reason for the frequent oceanic hurricanes that reach land over the past 50 years. According to experts, this may be due to global warming.

Источник aif.ru