The plot of the Arctic – the territory of development
Another expedition of Siberian scientists to the Dog Lake on Taimyr ended in October 2021. It was held with the support of the Arctic Development Project Office. Experts selected a new portion of Putoran char caviar to try to achieve fish reproduction in captivity. This is a continuation of the project on breeding Taimyr fish in aquaculture, unique in its nutritional properties, which is often called “the most useful fish in the world”.
“It is necessary to collect caviar for several seasons in order to diversify the genetic material of the repair and brood stock of fish being created. It must be obtained from different fish during the period before the appearance of the first fry in aquaculture. To do this, the female char is put to sleep with the help of clove oil and fish eggs are obtained, and then the fish that has recovered is released alive and healthy. After that, the eggs are fertilized in the pelvis with male milk. In the field, we checked that fertilization was successful, watched the beginningcrushing of fertilized eggs. After that, the caviar went to the Federal Breeding and Genetic Center of Fish Farming, a branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Glavrybvod”; (village of Ropsha, Leningrad region) and LLC Maltat (Primorsky district, Krasnoyarsk Territory). If everything goes according to plan, it is possible to expect the appearance of a full-fledged repair-brood herd in 5-7 years, when the loaches reach puberty. This will allow them to be bred in aquaculture conditions, without catching them in their natural habitat and without harming the environment. the head of the expedition Larisa Glushchenko, Candidate of Biological Sciences, associate professor of the Siberian Federal University.
The program “Monitoring and artificial reproduction of char R. Salvelinus oz. The Dog» is financially supported by the Arctic Development Project Office (PORA). Within its framework, employees of the Institute of Biophysics of the SB RAS, the Siberian Federal University and the Yenisei branch of the Federal State Budgetary Institution “Glavrybvod” have caught the producers of char for the second time to obtain caviar and artificial insemination. From the caviar obtained during the previous expedition and incubated in factory conditions in Norilsk, fry have already grown, which went to Ropsha and Krasnoyarsk for further cultivation.
The Dog Lake, located in the Taimyr Dolgan-Nenets district of the Krasnoyarsk Territory, attracted the attention of specialists several years ago, when researchers from the Institute of Biophysics of the KNC SB RAS and the Siberian Federal University discovered an Arctic char of the genus Salvelinus with a record content in the water area of the lakelong-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids of the omega-3 family (PUFA). These substances are responsible for the health of the cardiovascular and nervous system, youth and beauty of the skin, prevention of degenerative changes in the brain and prevention of obesity.
A group of scientists led by Corresponding member of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Professor Mikhail Gladyshev I analyzed the content of substances useful for humans in Putoran char. It turned out that the content of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids in this breed of fish is significantly higher than in sardines and other types of marine fish, which were previously considered the most useful. However, commercial fishing of rare fish in the protected lake is impossible. And against this background, the main goal of the project being implemented is to introduce char from Lake Sobachye into aquaculture in order to get the opportunity for commercial production of fish with unique nutritional properties.
Aquaculture is the only acceptable way of rational exploitation of the most valuable fish resources of oligotrophic (low-feeding) Arctic lakes. Industrial fishing in them is ineffective (with the exception of traditional crafts of indigenous peoples) due to the extremely low natural food supply.With the assistance of Glavbryvod specialists from Norilsk, Krasnoyarsk and Ropsha, and LLC “Maltat”, scientists from Krasnoyarsk and Moscow will conduct research at various stages of development of cultivated char to understand the reasons for the record content of PUFA in their biomass and develop optimal methods for their maintenance in aquaculture.